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A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. — Addenda 158 APPENDIX : — Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Session, Burlington, 1887 iii Treasurer's Report viii List of Officers and Members xl Constitution of the Association li Publications of the Association liii M 9830 •J a • fc •• • • • • • - . His words, cum per senatus con- sultum sanxisset, " when he had required by a senatus consul- turn,'' show that the measure proceeded originally from the emperor, not from the senate, and that it is likely therefore to have been a device for the emergency, not a part of the old law. His words are, "That the money-lenders should invest two-thirds of their estate in land, and the debtors should pay at once the same proportion of their debt." Ut faeneratores duas patrimonii partes in solo collocarent^ debitores totidetn aeris alieni statim solverent. As the problem to be solved was the difficulty of paying cash down, this can only be a clumsy and roundabout way of saying that two- thirds of the debt might be paid in land, the balance remain- ing for the eighteen months. Such as it was, it was a a-etaax Oe Lay or shaking off of burdens, a measure for the relief of debtors ; and it naturally aroused the opposi- tion of the creditors. Mar- cus Cicero wishes to know whether he should give his letters addressed to Quintus to the couriers (fabellarii) of Caesar or to those of Labienus : ** Ubi enim isti Nervii et quam longe absint, nescio." (Cf. His news about Caesar may have been somewhat colored by the filter through which it reached Cicero. Narbonenseniy for Narbonem restores the sense, that being the official name of that prov- ince in Livy's time. 2Z, 2, "ex homi- num milibus LX ad vix quingentos qui arma ferre possent, sese redactos esse "). begins : "Gallorum aliquot populi Ambiorige duce rege Eburonum defecerunt " ; Hertz unnecessarily brackets rege, which is both historically correct and grammatically necessary. 18, where he says that the Helvetians amounted to 300,000, of whom 190,000 were fight- ing men. But on this score Suetonius speaks with great bluntness (c. 7, 2 : '* Provinciae toti quam maximum potuit militum munerum imperat.") Suet. It is worth noticing that the same severe and threaten- ing tone which has been referred to as ascribed to the future indicative, in protasis, may be detected in many of these cases also. Side by side with the 10 cases of what may be called the regular form of the anticipatory condition we find five other cases (Sup. On these five cases alone it would be difficult to build any safe theory regarding the intention which our poet may have had in the use of this form of protasis.
Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. And what is made probable by these words is made nearly certain by the closing words, after the description of the provisions of the measure, nee expediretur, " but the diffi- culties were not resolved." We shall see presently, more- over, that this measure was essentially identical with Caesar's remedial measure of B. 49, and appears to be of a temporary and remedial character rather than a persistent policy. This second provision, about the debtors, is not contained in Tacitus* account ; perhaps it has dropped out of his manuscript (to which it is restored by Nipperdey) — more likely it was in his mind but omitted in writing because the matter seemed to him intelligible without it — a not unusual thing with him. Of course this could apply only to those who had land, and, in all probability, only to those who had hypothecated their land when obtaining their loan. "But the creditors demanded payment in full, and those upon whom the demand was made could not, without losing credit, fail to meet their obligations. The losses of the Nervii are told with a slight inaccuracy, Periocha of book CIV., "donee ex sexaginta milibus arma- torum mille superessent" (Caesar, B. As for Velleius Paterculus, the generalities of his text need not here be noticed by us. Frontinus, author of the " Strategematica," wrote his work during the reign of Domitian, 81-96 a.d., because he always refers to the latter as "Imperator Fl. 24) : "nee deinde u Ua belli occasione ne injusti quidem ac periculosi abstinuit, tam foederatis quam infestis ac feris gentibus ultro lacessitis, adeo ut senatus quondam legatos ad explorandum statum Galliarum mittendos decreverit ac nonnulli (Cato scil.) tradendum eum hostibus censuerint. 24 : " (legio una) conscripta ex Transalpinis vocabulo quoque Gal- lico — Alauda enim appellabatur — quam disciplina cultuque Romano institutam et ornatum postea universam civitate donavit." The amount of annual tribute levied upon Gaul by Caesar was given by Plutarch in his Caesar, 25, but is lost in the manuscript. 54 : " In Gallia fana tem- plaque deum donis referta expilavit, urbes diripuit saepius ob praedam quam ob delictum." This, too, suggests a con- temporary writer of Caesar's time bitterly hostile to him.
Even in our own time, — guarded by the printer's skill, — we choose with care the edition of any popular poet a century or more old. He was one of their favorite poets, and the language had shifted about as much in one case as in the other.
In that period of the Empire when early poetry again rose into favor, probably the scholars wrangled over the text of Terence somewhat in the manner of modern critics over Vol. For the first two or three centuries after the plays of Terence were written the tendency of scribes and critics was to reduce the language to the standard of the con- temporaneous language both in form and style.
I will give a free translation of his account of the affair, accompanied ^•.; ;•': .;:.: *• •! " At this time the accusers burst with great violence upon those who made a profession of loaning money at interest, in violation of the law of the Dictator Caesar, which regulates loans and landed property in Italy — a law which had fallen into desuetude, because the public welfare is less regarded than private gain." The law in question was probably passed by Caesar in his first dictatorship, B. One, tem- porary in nature, cancelled existing debts by the surrender of real and personal property The thing needed was to enable the debtors to pay their debts, not to direct the creditors how to invest their funds. ; not one word as to the great struggle of Vercinget^rix. Livy gave an account of Caesar's Gallic wars in books cm. As for Plutarch, it would be unfair indeed to expect perfect historical accuracy from that illustrator of human Vol. There are two data there not derivable from the account of Caesar or from the extant manuscripts. 53, 2, 3) says that with the exception of a handful (perpaiici) the Ger- mans were overtaken by Caesar's cavalry and slain. The other point is the statement of Plutarch in the same chapter that Caesar pursued the Germans for four hun- dred stadia to the Rhine, which is equivalent to qtnnqnagintay but not to qiiinqtie milia passuum, the latter being the read- ing of Caesar's manuscripts. The famous motion of Cato to surrender Caesar to these tribes in atonement for his perfidy is quoted by Plu- tarch from Tanusius (Geminus), a contemporary historian (cf. A proof that Caesar suffered from reverses in the campaign against the Arverni in 52 B. (Book VII.) xal hei Kvvovat 'Ap/Sepvoi ^Ll Xa)v Ka Oekelv Ke Xev- 6v T(i)v ov K e Xaae Vy iepov '^yovfievo^. And again, the surrender of Vercingeto- rix before Alesia is told by Plutarch with a certain detail greatly exceeding Caesar's extraordinary compression (VII. The work of this important writer is justly famous, not only for notices of the most accurate detail drawn from the most reliable and original sources, but also on account of the absence of panegyrical exaggeration. 503 (to be supplied), 907 (to be supplied), 1108 (to be supplied), Eum. This class of conditions is by no means of frequent occurrence in Aischylos, including only nine per cent of the total number. 1397, and in all the cases of el he fjuf), it is plainly discernible. 202, 322, 631) of the analogous use of a relative pronoun or adverb without hv introducing the subjunctive ; and by combining these two classes in our observation it may be possible to approach a generalization. In Attic prose this construction is exceedingly rare.
TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, 1887. With the assistance of these other writers, we find the account given by Tacitus consistent, and, no doubt, substantially correct, while still presenting some obscurities where it may be supposed that his statements were perfectly intelligible to his contemporaries. with such comments and illustrations as may seem called for. We learn at this time of two laws designed to remedy the economical embarrassments of society. there is an intermission in Cicero's letters of suggestive or important notices, down to 51 b.c. Caesarem, crebri etnon belli de eo rumores, sed susurratores dumtaxat, veniunt ; alius equitera perdidisse, quod, opinor, certe fictum est ; alius, septimara legionem vapulasse, ipsum apud Bellovacos circumsederi interclusum ab reliquo exercitu." 2. Caesar Germanos inclusos et ex despe- ratione fortius pugnastes emitti jussit, fugientesque aggressus est." 4. 19 : apid/xov Se v€Kpav fivpid Saf; oktco yevea Oac \eyovai. Elsewhere, too, we de- tect slovenliness of reminiscence in Plutarch, as when he calls the Usipetes and Tencteri of Caesar's text Ovalirai and Tev- KTcp LTai. Suetonius, a contemporary of Hadrian, and at one time imperial secretary, composed his Lives of the Twelve Caesars about 120 a.d. The only idea which can be said to be invariably expressed by this form is that of futurity. 202, 225, 320, 631) the condition is certainly generic, while in two of the other three (Sup. 7S6), the generic idea is by no means out of the question, but can easily be conceived of as present in the poet's mind.
Then, after a brief reaction toward original purity due to the scholastic influence of the grammarians and to a capricious love for the archaic, that degenerating tendency was again in force. of Terence from the very original down to the present form, we should find that the Ms.
It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. 48), whose brief statement proves that it was a remedial measure, not a part of the original law ; and that, therefore, ad hoc must be rendered "to meet this emer- gency " ; and shows further how it was that it was intended to help solve the difficulty. 15 Even more important is a provision of the senatus consul- turn, omitted by Tacitus, but given by Suetonius, by which alone we are in a position to understand it. the statement of Suetonius may come from a confusion with the provisions of Caesar's law.^ The relief measure in question, therefore, consisted in the requirement that the debtor should pay two-thirds down, and the creditor invest this two-thirds in land. Suetonius* use of the word patrimonium may have been borrowed from this nearly contem- porary measure. In dll these respects it corresponded closely to Caesar's law, only that that law applied to the whole debt, and allowed personal property, as well as real, to be taken in payment. The ignorance or indifference prevailing at the capital as to geography is well illustrated by a passage in a letter dated Nov., 54. The breach between the two surviving triumvirs had become an accomplished fact, and Cicero had become more definitely reattached to the party of the Optimates. gens) sedem quaerens per provinciam Caesaris Narbo- nem iter facere volebat." But it would require some violence to have Livy gather from Caesar that the Helvetii wished to go to Narbo, whereas their goal, the district of the Santones, was at least 200 miles away. We do find gross slips, e.g, in his life of Caesar, c. To illustrate : Acute study of the Commentaries has revealed the fact that Caesar, with consummate skill, has presented his conquest as a series of unavoidable acts, partly defensive and partly precautionary in character. The present subjunctive occurs with about the same frequency as the aorist, in protasis, while in apodo- sis the future indicative outnumbers all other forms together. The cases of e^' Be fiq do not bear upon this point in either ^ Untersuchungen iiber die griechische Modi, p. Its apodosis is in Aischylos always the future indicative. This is so rare a construction in Attic Greek as to call for special atten- tion. In t Ke Homeric poems the subjunctive is introduced by el much oftener than by el Kev or el av, and it is important to remember that the former is invariably preferred in gen- eral conditions.^ Pindar uses only el with the conditional sub- junctive, and always in the generic sense.^ The construction is also occasionally found in Sophokles, where the generic signification seems to be less common. Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Conditional Sentences in Aischylos 43 By Professor Edward B. But business men could not afford to take advantage of a mode of settlement which would give a temporary relief, but destroy their business credit. On the other hand, we know very definitely that a young partisan and ardent admirer of Caesar, Gaius Oppius, wrote a book dealing largely with the splendid and generous qualities of his patron; for example, relating a case of delicate self- sacrifice shown to this Oppius himself when the latter was ailing, told both by Plutarch (c. The Germans throughout are called Ki Xrai, The battle with Ariovistus is told with spirited detail, probably mostly drawn, however, from the sympathetic imagination of the historian. Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. To the creditors the proposi- tion must have seemed wholly unjust. There now remained but one resource, — the di- rect interposition of the government. Octobr., confecta Britannia, obsidibus acceptis, nulla praeda, imperata tamen pecunia, exercitum e Britannia reportabant.^' The younger Cicero in the field beguiled his time with writing Greek tragedies, e.g. As regards the insilire in phalanges^ Dio too seems to have conceived it like Florus : dvrj Kov TO Tpo TTOV TLva Ka X e Koirrov avrovf;. 7, i, is confused when he says that Caesar sent his light-armed troops and cavalry by night to guard the bridge over the Axona (it should be the oppidum of Bibrax). And when it had once failed, Tiberius — always character- ized by a certain self-distrust and infirmity of purpose, and now old, broken in mind and body, and, we may suppose, thoroughly scared at the commotion his well-meaning action had excited — never had the heart to make another attempt. xviii.] The Tradition of Caesar's Gallic Wars, 19 II. Unhappily, the bulk of work concerning this writer is done for boys, although, as one of the most eminent Caesar critics (I. Heller of Berlin) of our time has truly said, " of all writers, this one has written most exclusively for men." In the vast literature concerning Caesar an exhaustive dis- cussion of the tradition of his narrative in other and later classical writers seems as yet to have been lacking. It seems that Rauchenstein lays excessive stress upon divergence of statement between Caesar on the one hand, and Plutarch, Appian, Orosius, on the other. 26, 4) "Eine muthmassliche Fiction." In taking up the notices and accounts concerning the Gallic war in chronological order, we will have to observe three points : (i) The manner of reproduction. The personal appearance and the demeanor of Vercingetorix are again described with a detail which is not derivable from Caesar's bald two words, Vercingetorix deditur (VH. It is more than probable that Oppius was the common source for the various relators of this episode. xviii.] The Tradition of Caesar^ s Gallic Wars, 29 to pass that within four centuries Caesar's Commentarii were taken for the work of Suetonius Tranquillus (on which subject see at length the preface of Nipperdey), Orosius' reproduc- tion, on the whole, may be called the most faithful, as it is the last of all those to whom we are wont to assign the term classical in the wider sense. The oldest, as a rule, contain the purest texts, but there are possible exceptions. — The Tradition of Caesar's Gallic Wars from Cicero to Orosius. Riistow and Kochly, it is true, when adverting to certain topics and passages in Caesar, have cited statements in Plutarch and Orosius. 54, i, after the same wri- ters, rejecting the manuscripts of Caesar, and Drumann has adopted a certain view, adopted by Florus and others, as his own. 755-764), who notes with great care points of divergence between Caesar on the one hand, and Dio Cassius, Appian, Plutarch, etc., on the other. that there was nothing concerning the Gallic war in Livy, Suetonius, Florus, Eutropius, Plutarch, Appian, Dio Cassius, "which had not sprung from the same source, and sprung from the same roots." We will see that this is by no means accurate. Rauchenstein, concerning Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii, is reviewed by Heller in the Philol. But so little balanced is he that he calls Caesar's account of the taking of the bulwark of carts (B. (2) Whether any- where a real addition may be observed. It is hardly necessary to say in advance that none of the accounts, in point of fidelity and precision, can be compared to the accounts of such modern writers as Merivale or Mommsen, or of Ranke in his last great work ; although we must keep in mind that in the accu- racy of our geographical knowledge we have a very consid- erable advantage over the ancient readers of Caesar. Cicero's notices, as far as available, are those of a con- temporary. When Caesaf sent a letter to Quintus Cicero in the latter's most critical stage of siege at the hands of the Nervii, he used Greek letters (V. The last of our authors is Paulus Orosius, a younger contemporary and protege of St. Here and there the effect of Caesar's style upon his own is tangible, e.g. 7 (speaking of the Helvetian Orgetorix) : " Quo caeteri optimates cor- repto et ad mortem coacto cohibere tamen semel animatas in praedam plebes nequiverunt " (facile factu, VI. His view of the phalanx of Ariovistus and how the Roman legion- aries attacked it agrees on the whole with that of Florus : " Pugna maxime gravis ex phalange Germanorum fuit, quam coacto in unum agmine scutisque supra capita contextis ad irrumpendam Romanorum aciem tute undique praestruxerant. PEASE, PROFESSOR IN BOWDOIN COLLEGE, BRUNSWICK, ME. The manuscripts of an author are classified into groups or fam- ilies, from which are formed the archetypes of the families, and on this structure is built an earlier archetype. A late copy may have been made from a very old Ms., or an old Ms.